About Wheat

Wheat is the only herbaceous plant first cultivated all over the world. Since it has many kind of varieties which can be grown in any sort of climate and soil condition, it has been planted almost everywhere of the world.

According to archaeologists, the motherland of wheat is south east of Turkey Karacadag region between B.C. 8.800 - 8.400 neolithic age, later it spread to Syria and between B.C. 8.500-8.000, Palestinian territory during the prophet Davud's time. Then it continued to spread to Cyprus in B.C. 6.500 and Greece, in B.C. 6.000 it was started to be planted in the delta of the Nile River and during B.C. 5.000 wheat lands reached to Germany and Spain. China and England met Wheat after thousands of years and the USA in 1602. Wheat became an industrial product in Egypt in years B.C. 3.000 by being ground with stone and yielded with the use of horses.

Wheat prefers terrestrial climate. It is the most produced item all over the world coming before corn and rice in terms of cultivation and consumption. The biggest producer is China but at the same time the biggest consumer of wheat and as a result, this country tries to compensate the need for wheat form other exporter countries. Wheat is a vital product in human life because of the nutritional values it contains.

Wheat; is a basic of food which is full of protein for human and animals and used in the production of flour, and animal feed. Wheat is mostly produced both in our country and in the world. Depending on the land and climate condition, its quality and nutritional value changes. In connection with this, wheat is used in different fields. It has two main varieties as soft and hard wheat and it is the main ingredient of Bread, Macaroni, Bulgur, Biscuits and also starch, glucose.

Yielded wheat is ground ing grinding mills with or without husk and made flour for bread, macaroni semolina or bulgur.

Wheat is produced as a nutritional herb and during its production process, after the yield, starting from its stalk to its husk, without any waste, all valuable source for human and animals.

Because of these benefits of wheat, starting from 1900's, some genetic studies were carried on in order to increase and spread the production and thanks to these studies, some sorts of wheat have been gained which has resistance to cold, bad weather conditions, unsuitable soil varieties, harmful insects and grass.

Thirty different sorts of wheat is known and it is divided into two different group as spring and winter wheats. After this classification, each group is divided into two basic groups and then into three group according to the purpose of use.

A- Spring Wheats: Durum Wheat, Wheat for Bread

B- Winter Wheats: For Bread and other usage purpose

1- Wheat for Bread: Used for making bread and cake

2- Durum Wheats: Used for making macaroni and Bulgur rice

Wheats are used for different purposes depending on nutritional values. These values change according to the soil and season and also physical structure and colour of wheat show diversities. They are called as hard and red spring wheat or hard and red winter wheat. In some soils where both hard, red spring wheat and hard, red winter wheat are cultivated, hard and white wheat has been observed to be grown. In such cases, white wheat has higher quality but it needs more labour and cost to cultivate.

Soft wheats are softer in texture and lower in protein than hard wheats. Wheats of this class are generally used in the manufacture of cakes, biscuits, pastry, and other types of flours. Soft white wheats are used principally for pastry flours and shredded and puffed breakfast foods.

Hard wheats are used for any kind of bread, pizza and simit production.

Durum wheats are ideal for Mediterranean meals such as macaroni, semolina and bulgur rice because of their colour and high gluten content.



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Wheat products


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